How to use R 2

My first introduction about how to use R is here.

I have attended in the Workshop hosted by UVa library statistics consulting group. It was useful for me because they provide the detailed descriptions and explanations about each code. Because my first experience of R did not include any of those step-by-step explanations about how to use R. This workshop provided explanations of the each code in the SCRIPTS window with “#”. And by clicking ctrl + enter, the results of running those code were show in the CONSOLE, so that I could follow easily what I was doing with R.

I have summarized my notes below:

  • ctrl +enter: bring codes from scripts to console
  • write down orders in R script (upper left) and click ctrl+enter to see the results in the Console
  • remove
    • # the rm function removes objects from memory
    • rm(x, y, z)
    • or broom mark upper right where s,y,z showed
  • Setting working directory
    • [menu] session–> set working directory
    • tab key will call folder to put ” “
  • names: name of the columns
  • nrow: number of rows
  • ncol: cumber of columns.
  • $ will help to see certain culumns
  • can calculate frequencies or numeric
  • to see the numbers put the order in the ( )
  • subsetting : use [ ]
  • c( ): select columns (name of the column) # for example, c(company, sales)
  • save the file as .Rda by selecting sections and saved it as new name

What is collaborative research?

Collaborative research is doing a research with common research inquiries and putting equal amount of knowledge and efforts on the whole process of the research to create research synergies.

For  my opinion, I think for collaborative research, researchers should have gone through following process.

First, researchers should have common research inquiries. Not even research questions, but I think, especially in social science areas, there should be commonalities in questions about the phenomena or beliefs about the phenomena between researchers. And the implications of the study? The answer for the question, “Why do you want to study this topic/area?” should have matched to each other.

Second, once research inquiries are set up, researchers should establish research questions. Even researchers found some commonalities between their research inquiries, they might think different ways to explore the phenomena. “What exactly do you want to know among your inquiries?”

Third, think about the methodology for the study. How do researchers would like to explore the phenomena? Qualitatively or quantitatively or both? By answering this question, researchers may have more clear ideas about what they want to study. Or, they may find the gap between their purpose of the study. Once (still, potential, though) research questions established, research questions should be revised to accordance with methodology.

For researchers in social science areas, I believe writing an IRB helps to go through the three steps that I’ve introduced above. In the IRB application, research questions, methodologies, and implication (or possible risks that may derive from the study) should clearly stated. IRB asks detailed and clear ideas about the research plan: analysis plan, recruiting participants plan, how to ask their permissions to participate in the study, etc. So, writing up research design process will give researchers chances to have enough discussion about the research directions and plans.

If there is a researcher who wish to join after getting IRB or after other researchers already set-up the research design, the new researcher should have clear ideas why his or her research interests bring him/her to join the existing/ongoing research project. Without those concepts, I don’t think it is a collaborative research but social loafing behaviors.