When to use MANOVA

I used MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance) for a quantitative data analysis of my dissertation.

So, when to use MANOVA?

  • When you have several dependent variables (DV)
  • When there is only one independent variable or when there are several, we can look at interactions between independent variables, and we can even do contrasts to see which groups differ from each other.

What are benefits of using MANOVA?

  • we can look at interactions between independent variables
  • we can even do contrasts to see which groups differ from each other
  • MANOVA can tell us the relationship between DV(outcome variables).

Compared to ANOVA, what are good things of using MANOVA? why MANOVA is used instead of multiple ANOVAs?

  • the more tests we conduct on the same data, the more we inflate the familywise error rate; the more dependent variables that have been measured, the more ANOVAs would need to be conducted and the greater the chance of making a Type I error.
  • MANOVA has greater power to detect an effect, because it can detect whether groups differ along a combination of variables, whereas ANOVA can detect only if groups differ along a single variable
  • ANOVA can tell us only whether groups differ along a single dimension whereas MANOVA has the power to detect whether groups differ along a combination of dimensions.

workout progress week 8

 <운동 8주차>

생각보다 웨이트 트레이닝은 많이 못 했다. 8주면..대략18번은 했어야 했는데, 이제껏 13번 밖에 못했다. 25번 정도 하고 나면, 유산소도 줄이려고 했는데..아직 아니네..3주는 꼬박 잘 챙겨서 해야 유산소를 줄일 수 있을것 같다.

일단..6주차쯤 돌아봤을때는..식습관 때문에 몸무게/허리치수 목표달성을 하지 못한거 같았다. 그래도 운동은 꽤 꾸준히 했는데, 몸무게가 목표치 만큼은 줄지 않았다. 몸무게는 웨이트트레이닝을 병행하다보면 처음에는 근육량이 증가하다보니 운동효과를 측정하기에 좋은 척도가 아니라 토닥여봤으나..허리치수도 뭐 그렇게 크게 변하지도 않은것 같아서..좀 더 열심히 해야겠다는 생각을 했다.

<아침달리기 25분>

다가오는 주에는 특훈으로 아침 달리기를 주중 3회 하려고 한다. 공복에 뛰는 것 만큼 좋은 지방태우기도 없지만, 확실히 아침에 몸이 무거울때는 밖에서 뛰는 것 만한게 없는 것 같아서다. 이번주 같은경우..수요일에는 할게 있어서 새벽 4시에 일어나고,  점심엔 집에서 Peggy네 가족들 한국음식 점심대접하고, 목요일에도 새벽 4시에 일어나서 5시에 집에서 나서서  2시간 반 운전해서 VT 에 컨퍼런스/발표하고 집에 밤 10시 반에야 도착했었다. 너무 피곤해서 스트레칭 조차 제대로 못하고 잠들었더니 당연히 금요일 아침에는 몸이 천근만근..그래도 아침에 일어나자마자 밖에서 20분 정도만 달리고 왔더니 확실히 에너지 충전이 됐다. 확실히 덜 처지는 기분..물론 얼굴 붓기도 확 빠지고…이런 좋은 경험은 내 몸이 잘 기억했다가 평생 잘 사용했으면 좋겠다..

< Pilates  시작>

2주 전부터 필라테스를 시작했다. 진작 할 걸 그랬다는 생각만 들정도로 아주 좋다. 운동을 꽤 규칙적으로 해도 만성 어깨목결림이 있고, 뻑하면 골반 어딘가 뼈가 안 맞는 기분, 그리고 허리아픔 등등이 있는 나를 위한 운동.

이렇게 운동을 하는데도 계속 결림이 있는건 정말 어딘가 문제가 있는 상태에서 계속 더 나빠지게 강화시키는 기분이 들어서 하루 빨리 고쳐야겠다 싶어서 등록한건데..정말 잘한것같다. 주로 균형을 맞춰가며 꼭 필요한 근육만 운동시키는 방법이라 항상 하고 오면 온몸이 너무 편하다. 그리고 더 신기한건…마치 전신 맛사지를 받았을때처럼 몸이 노곤해진다..모든 곳에 순환이 된 기분이랄까…한 숨 푹 자야할 것 같은 그런 기분좋은 노곤함이 찾아온다..한 6개월을 꾸준히 해야겠다는 생각이 든다..가격도 사실 목어깨가 결릴때마다 맛사지받는데 투자한 금액을 생각하면, 별로 비싼게 아니다..오히려 장기적으로 봤을땐 내 몸의 약한 부분에 근육을 만들어주는 투자를 하는거니까 절대 비싸다고는 못 할것 같다..

Teaching Large Classes Conference (Jul, 23, 2015) at VT

2015-07-23 08.13.44
Interesting Keywords from sessions:

1. Keynote speaking

learning analytics from echo360

2. Self-development study

  • Individual sustainability/sustainable personality: social, intellectual, health, emotional, economic–> but was not relevant to learning.
  • cognitive dissonance

3. Music Model for Motivation (Dr. Brett Jones, VT)

  • eMpowerment: decision making power
  • Usefulness: relevant to career goals, interest, and real-world
  • Success: instructor’s expectation (rubric), challenging enough, feedback. confidence and satisfaction?
  • Interest: to keep students’ attention use diverse instructional strategies
  • Caring: let them know instructors care about students
    • For my understanding, I was trying to compare MUSIC model with ARCS model (Attention Relevance Confidence and Satisfaction) that I am using for the grant, having eMpowerment is a unique element in MUSIC model.
    • I had a chance to talk with Dr. Jones (brettjones@vt.edu) and could hear some answers for my confusion on motivation. When exploring motivation, we don’t need to use all of them; sometimes we will need to use only 2-3 elements of motivation or engagement. Just choose focus area that I would like to make changes. Engagement vs. motivation: pretty much similar topic but just different terms; He has published a paper with Engineering people regarding motivation. Email him to request for the information. He helped me to link motivation theories to STEM.
    • MUSIC model explains the model as an instructor’s point of view; he said, “All five components are students’ perceptions”<– I think this is very important point when applying to learning environment. Because if students do not perceive the instructors’ change, instructional strategies are useless.
    • 6 Likert-scale: Strongly D, Disagree, Somewhat D, Somewhat A, Agree, Strongly A
    • It seems like MUSIC model is similar to self-determination theory. How is it different? Probably based on self-determination theory?
    • Jones, B. D. (2009). Motivating students to engage in learning: The MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(2), 272-285.
    • http://www.theMUSICmodel.com
    • Survey: does it come with crosschecking? or only by students?: only by students. MUSIC instrument has not been cross validated yet. It would be really interesting to have that data in the future.

4. Investigating links between motivation, student learning strategies, and achievement on high-stakes tests in large undergraduate courses (Jacob Grohs jrgrohs@vt.edu, Glenda Young glenda87@vt.edu)

  • Cluster analysis: grouping students into failing, weak, improving, fast improving, and strong based on their test scores changes from test 1 to 5–> check it. It will be useful for me to tracking students’ learning progress changes. good for checking patterns of behaviors. (contact Glenda for this analysis)
  • Their prelim findings with hours per week, failing groups did not put much hours for peer work but outperform in individual problem solving task.Hours per week was checked by students (self-report)
  • The most interesting presentation/research so far in this conference.
  • For team-based learning, students’ motivation level for the course affect on team/learning participation. It looks like when having motivated students(law school, med school, major course), team-based learning worked smoother than courses for non majors or elective courses.

It is very refreshing to hear their research presentation without PPT slides.

Changing personality after checking multi-dimensional survey results?–> I think someone’s personalities are changing throughout their lives..but, it would be meaningful for college students to provide opportunities to reflect/self-diagnose their personalities: http://www.personalitypad.org/

Learning Science Conferences list: ACM SIGs, LAK, ISLS

Learning Science Conferences

Association for Computing Machinary


The 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK16) 

  • At Edinburgh, Scotland, April 25-29 and for the first time, LAK16 will be co-located with ACM Learning @ Scale
  • Call for proposals
  • Learning at Scale” refers to new approaches for students to learn and for teachers to teach, when engaging large numbers of students, either in a face-to-face setting or remotely, whether synchronous or asynchronous, with the requirement that the techniques involve large numbers of students (where “large” is preferably thousands of students, but can also apply to hundreds in in-person settings).
  • Topics include, but are not limited to: Usability Studies, Tools for Automated Feedback and Grading, Learning Analytics, Analysis of Log Data, Studies of Application of Existing Learning Theory, Investigation of Student Behavior and Correlation with Learning Outcomes, New Learning and Teaching Techniques at Scale. (from http://learningatscale.acm.org/las2016/)

12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences, 2016.

  • Conference dates: 20 to 24 June 2016
  • Conference theme: Transforming Learning, Empowering Learners
  • Submission Deadline: 11:59pm Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8), November 13, 2015

Workout progress

어제부터 웬지 몸이 무거웠다. 그 핑계가 시작됐었다.

‘이렇게 가기 싫음에도 불구하고 운동가면 분명히 아플거야’

그래서 어제는 운동을 안 했다. 지난주에는  fitbit 에 기록된 것만 일주일에 37 mile 정도를 운동했고, 실제 운동하는것처럼 움직여야 카운팅이 되는  active minutes도 360분정도나 했는걸..아주 열심히 잘했어…그래 하루정도는 쉬어줘야지 하는 셀프설명으로…ㅎㅎ

오늘은? 또 오늘의 핑계거리가 있었다. (어김없이..) 어제는 새로산 원두가 생각보다 강했는지 새벽 3시에 잠이 깼었다. 거의 1시간을 다시 못 자고 뒤척이다 잠들어서..오늘 아침은 보통때보다 늦게 일어나고..오후되니 웬지 눈도 뻑뻑하고…또 다시 운동을 갈까말까 고민에 빠졌었다.  역시나 이유는 같았다..이럴때 운동가면 아파..그래서 침대에 드러누워보며 잉여짓을 시작하다가…이건 아니다 싶어서..딱 30분만 걷다가 오자는 결심으로 나갔다.

결과는? 오늘의 목표치를 모두 달성하고 왔다. 저녁먹기 전이라서 그런지 운동을 하다보니 생각보다 몸도 가볍고..결국은 유산소 중에 가장 강한 강도로 하는 HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training)10 sprint 나 하고..집에 오는길에 산들바람이 좋아서 밖에서 더 걷다보니…  77 active minutes, 4.6 miles,  그리고 11000  steps 를 운동했다. 결국 이번달 내 운동 goal 인  fitbit  기준  workout for more than 70 active minutes, 11000 steps, and 4.5 miles를 달성한..

운동가려고 걸어갈때만 해도..웬지 어지러운거 같고…터벅터벅걸어서 갔는데, 달리기를 시작하면 몸이 좀 다르다..특히 요즘 하고 있는  HIIT 유산소는 거의 1분마다 속도를 바꿔주다보니 지겹지도 않고..땀은 엄청나고..말그래도 단 시간에 강렬한 운동효과가 있는 것 같은 느낌이다. 짧은 시간에 더 많은 효과를 내고 싶으니까..아무래도 1시간 걷는것보다 훨씬 짧고 덜 지겨운데 더 많이 운동하게 되다보니 약간 중독성이 있다.. 그러나 나쁜 중독은 아니니..

오늘 또 나에 대해 배운 기분이다. 쳐지고 힘들땐 운동가서 확실하게 땀흘리고 운동하고 오는게 소파나 침대에서 뒹굴며 웹툰이나 (별로 관심없었지만 웬지 봐두면 도움이 될것같다는 생각에 보는) 흥미거리 한국기사들보며 쉬는것도 아니고 피로회복이 되는것도 아닌, 오히려 눈의 피로는 배가 될것같은 짓거리를 하는 것보다 훨씬 생산적이라는 것.

결국 삼두운동도 하고 왔자너! 😉

요즘하고 있는 treadmill에서 하는 HIIT …

시간은 minute:secs 속도는 mile/Hr

  1. 처음 5분은 그냥 준비 걷기..3.7-4.0
  2. 5-10:00 준비 running 4.5
  3. 10-11:00 moderate running 5.5
  4. 11:00-11:30 sprint 7.5
  5. 11:30-12:30 walking 3.5+
  6. 12:30-13:30 moderate running 5.5
  7. 13:30-14:00 sprint 7.5
  8. 14:00-15:00 walking 3.5+

sprint 10회까지 반복하면 총 35분이 걸리고..마무리로 5-10분 정도 더 걸어주면 대략 45분간의 땀이 뚝뚝 떨어지는 강렬 유산소가 된다.

incline은 그 날 컨디션에 따라 보통은 1로 두지만, 좀 괜찮다 싶을때는 2.0에서 2.5..

최근에 찾은 두번째 HIIT 운동표…Pinterest 에 Pin해놓음..

Writing Tips: for academic writing (link) and for blogger (link) with my takeaway messages

For Academic Writing: Writing for an academic journal: 10 tips

For Blogging: How to write a killer copy


So..I am in an academic field and to write and publish an academic paper is critical for us to develop our capabilities and career.  There are tons of books, information, advice regarding how to publish papers because our lives sometimes described as “publish or perish” lives.

Today, I am going to write down specific to-do-list based on what I learned from others’ advice.

1. define the purpose of publication.

  • Am I writing to make a difference or impact world? to develop a profile in our field?

2. Know colleagues or competitors and journals

  • Research other researchers in the field. where they have published recently?

3. Analyze structure and type of the paper and choose two role model papers and cite them.

4. Create very detailed outline starting with two sentences: an opening and an ending sentence

  • Use verbs that will define purpose of each section: to summarize, overview, critique, define, introduce, conclude, etc.

5. Set specific writing sub-goals before and after writing with asking one simple question for five minutes

  • Question: What have you done with this writing/publication and  what do you want to do in the long, mid, and short term ?
  • Before: not the deadline but like “my next writing goal is to (verb) summarize and critique twelve articles for the (section) literature review section in (length) 800 words on (when) Tuesday between (Time) 9am and 10:30”
  • After: On Thursday from 10 AM 11AM, I will draft the conclusion section in 500 words.”

6. Use collaborative writing

  • Having a writing buddy or a writing group is recommended when you are in a very busy life schedules. Block the Internet access and phone and just write.
  • Get feedback from 3-4 people from the outline to the end.

Top Journals for e-learning research (link)


According to this webiste, the ranking of journals is as below.

  1.      Computers in Human Behavior
  2.      Computers & Education
  3.      Internet and Higher Education
  4.      Information & Management
  5.      Journal of Computer Assisted Learning
  6.      British Journal of Educational Technology
  7. Educational Technology & Society
  8.      Distance Education
  9. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
  10.      Journal of Educational Computing Research
  11. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology